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For instance bacteria legionella order ethambutol 600mg without a prescription, cognitively busy targets may be able to see through blatant persuasion tactics antimicrobial gauze purchase ethambutol 800 mg with visa, such as ingratiation, because of high levels of motive accessibility. Whereas persuasion knowledge has often been conceptualized as a situational variable. Differential experience with persuasion might lead individuals to have higher or lower levels of persuasion expertise. As noted above, Friestad and Wright (1994) suggested that experience would be important for the development of persuasion knowledge. In support of this, research has found that older adults (over 30 years of age), who typically have more persuasion experience, demonstrate more sophisticated use of persuasion knowledge than younger adults (Kirmani & Campbell, 2004). Experience is likely to lead to individual differences in the quantity and content of persuasion knowledge. The notion of an individual difference in the use of persuasion knowledge led to the development of an individual difference scale that measures persuasion knowledge as a subcomponent of consumer self-confidence (Bearden et al. Thus, research shows that persuasion knowledge may be situationally or chronically activated. More research into both situational and individual differences in use of persuasion knowledge is needed at this time. Cognitive capacity, motive accessibility, and persuasion expertise all influence the extent to which persuasion knowledge is used. At this time, research opportunities exist to identify and explore additional factors that increase or suppress the use of persuasion knowledge. It is highly likely that there are other, unexplored antecedents of persuasion knowledge use. Consumers may have persuasion-related goals, such as not succumbing to persuasion or getting the best deal, which might increase the likelihood of using persuasion knowledge. Likewise, it would be useful to identify factors that are antecedents to the combined use of persuasion knowledge with either topic or agent knowledge. Following the model, the consequences of persuasion knowledge activation and use would thus appear to be found in the persuasion episode (see Figure 21. The consumer is likely to form beliefs about what the marketer is doing and then engage in some response. Thus, while coping behaviors and response strategies can be thought of as precursors to more "terminal" outcomes of beliefs, attitudes, and choices, it is clear that persuasion response and outcomes involve a recursive process and that all are outcomes of the use of persuasion knowledge. We first address coping responses that result from the use of persuasion knowledge and then outcomes of beliefs, attitudes and choices. While the majority of research has found that activation of persuasion knowledge leads to negative outcomes in terms of persuasion, research does find positive consequences of persuasion knowledge usage. Thus, it is surprising that thus far, little research has directly examined responses strategies that consumers use to cope with marketplace influence. One exception to this uses both qualitative and experimental methodologies to explore and identify strategies that consumers use to respond to marketers (Kirmani & Campbell 2004). This research identified 15 strategies by which consumers respond to persuasion attempts and conditions under which the strategies are used. Importantly, the research revealed that consumers have two general modes of response: consumers act as "persuasion sentries," guarding against unwanted persuasion, and they also act as "goal seekers," using persuasion agents to achieve their own marketplace goals (Kirmani & Campbell). Although some of the resistance-related strategies have been considered in work in psychology on resistance to persuasion. It is likely that many outcomes of the use of persuasion knowledge are negative because of reactance that arises in response to believing that someone else is trying to persuade, and thereby control, the self. Because of this, the majority of research to date has examined negative reactions. As noted earlier, consumers often assume that communicators are cooperative, rather than competitive. A few studies demonstrate situations in which people do not display reactance when they know that an ulterior motive is present. Recent research specifically examines when suspicion of a self-serving motive does and does not lead to negative consumer response (Forehand & Grier, 2003). When a firm only states that it is engaging in cause-related marketing in order to help others, but the situation suggests to consumers that the cause-related behavior will also help the firm, consumers are seen to respond more negatively. However, when the firm expresses that the cause-related marketing will help others and help themselves, consumers do not appear to respond negatively to the firm (Forehand & Grier, 2003). This research suggests that in some cases, consumers have sophisticated, conditionally based concepts of persuasion appropriateness that influence important responses to persuasion.
More research would also be useful to identify further moderators that determine when evaluative conditioning will prove effective in influencing attitudes towards what products antibiotics for dogs clavamox order 600mg ethambutol. The perceived diagnosticity of the information on which the attitude is based also plays a role treatment for sinus infection in pregnancy cheap ethambutol 600mg on-line. Fazio (1995) argued that individuals are sensitive to attitudinal diagnosticity, the perception of the evidentiary base upon which an evaluation is relying, and may view some classes of information as more reliable than other classes of information. Smith and Swinyard (1983) found that attitudes towards various snack foods were more consistent with behavior when they were based on a product trial (direct experience) rather than advertising (see Wu & Shaffer, 1987; Berger & Mitchell, 1989, for related findings). Fazio, Herr, and Olney (1982) found that inducing individuals to recall voluntary behaviors relevant to a given attitude domain increased the strength of the object-evaluation association more so than having individuals review the same class of behaviors in circumstances in which the behavior occurred under coercion. Some relevant evidence is provided by Fazio, Zanna, and Cooper (1978), who presented participants with video clips of an actor working on various novel intellectual puzzles. Participants were instructed either to "just listen and watch carefully" or to "imagine how you would feel if you were working the examples. This is not to say that analytical thought cannot provide a useful and valid basis for attitudes. In domains not marked by difficulty in noting and verbalizing significant features, more extensive thought has been shown to enhance attitude strength. For example, attitudes formed through the careful consideration of the arguments contained in a persuasive message (central processing) are generally more accessible than those formed through peripheral processing (Petty, Haugtvedt, & Smith, 1995). However, a second kind of association is also very relevant to consumer choice behavior - that between the representation of a category and an exemplar or instance of the category. These category-exemplar associations also vary in strength such that activation of the category can automatically activate particular exemplars and vice versa. Presidents" will cause many people to automatically retrieve exemplars such as George Washington and George W. These individuals have not only often been thought of frequently, but also have been frequently thought of as Presidents, whereas other exemplars. Hayes) may be more weakly associated with the category and are not as likely to be activated automatically by the relevant category. One property of category-exemplar associations that distinguishes them from attitude-object associations is their bidirectionality. The likelihood that an exemplar automatically activates a category may differ from the likelihood that that category automatically activates that exemplar. The more useful variable tends to be the likelihood that objects automatically activate evaluations, not the other way around. With category-exemplar associations, however, the likelihood that the category will evoke the exemplar and the likelihood that the exemplar will evoke the category are often both of interest. In this case, the category and exemplar will each always automatically activate the other. Consumer psychologists have recognized that it is important to consider the bi-directionality of associations between brands (exemplars) and the relevant product category (see Farquhar & Herr, 1993). The terms "category dominance" and "instance dominance" have been used to describe, respectively, the strength of the category-to-brand association and the strength of the brand-to-category association. Category Dominance Regarding category dominance, a brand has a relative advantage if for many individuals that brand is activated automatically from memory upon consideration of a relevant product category. This "top-of-mind awareness" has been posited as a key link between media advertising and purchase behavior (Krugman, 1965; Sutherland & Galloway, 1981). It is easy to imagine situations in which retrieving a brand from memory is a prerequisite to initiating purchase behavior, and research does indicate that brand retrieval is a predictor of choice (Nedungadi, 1990). As this would suggest, the first brand listed upon presentation of a product category is both a reliable and valid measure of repeat purchases (Axelrod, 1968). The first brands activated in consideration of the category "pizza" have an enormous advantage. The first pizza considered, if it "sounds good" and is practical, is ordered post haste. Indeed, consumer studies have observed that only the first brands recalled are likely to be part of a consideration set. If the first option considered is deemed desirable, actions toward acquiring that brand rather than a competitor are undertaken without further consideration, preempting the choice process (Nedungadi, 1990). This seems especially likely if the steps required to make a purchase are clear and convenient, for example if the necessary phone number is known or easily locatable and so on. Sometimes this occurs to the detriment of satisfaction with a purchase or other choice.
These marines who served in Iraq and Afghanistan antibiotics for boxer dogs generic 800 mg ethambutol, together with community mental health volunteers antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an example of which of the following buy cheapest ethambutol, are part of the Ocean Therapy program at Camp Pendleton, a program in which learning to surf is combined with group discussions. But can you envision a therapy session in which someone is wearing virtual reality headgear to conquer a fear of snakes In this chapter, you will see that approaches to therapy include both psychological and biological interventions, all with the goal of alleviating distress. Because psychological problems can originate from various sources-biology, genetics, childhood experiences, conditioning, and sociocultural influences-psychologists have developed many different therapeutic techniques and approaches. With many different treatment options available, approximately how many people receive mental health treatment per year However, there were some differences between treatment rates by category of disorder (Figure 16. Can you think of some possible reasons for these differences in receiving treatment Considering the many forms of treatment for mental health disorders available today, how did these forms of treatment emerge It was believed that mental illness was caused by demonic possession, witchcraft, or an angry god (Szasz, 1960). For example, in medieval times, abnormal behaviors were viewed as a sign that a person was possessed by demons. If someone was considered to be possessed, there were several forms of treatment to release spirits from the individual. In addition to exorcism and trephining, other practices involved execution or imprisonment of people with psychological disorders. Generally speaking, most people who exhibited strange behaviors were greatly misunderstood and treated cruelly. The prevailing theory of psychopathology in earlier history was the idea that mental illness was the result of demonic possession by either an evil spirit or an evil god because early beliefs incorrectly attributed all unexplainable phenomena to deities deemed either good or evil. From the late 1400s to the late 1600s, a common belief perpetuated by some religious organizations was that some people made pacts with the devil and committed horrible acts, such as eating babies (Blumberg, 2007). These people were considered to be witches and were tried and condemned by courts-they were often burned at the stake. Worldwide, it is estimated that tens of thousands of mentally ill people were killed after being accused of being witches or under the influence of witchcraft (Hemphill, 1966) By the 18th century, people who were considered odd and unusual were placed in asylums (Figure 16. Asylums were the first institutions created for the specific purpose of housing people with psychological disorders, but the focus was ostracizing them from society rather than treating their disorders. Often these people were kept in windowless dungeons, beaten, chained to their beds, and had little to no contact with caregivers. In the late 1700s, a French physician, Philippe Pinel, argued for more humane treatment of the mentally ill. Patients benefited from this more humane treatment, and many were able to leave the hospital. In the 19th century, Dorothea Dix led reform efforts for mental health care in the United States (Figure 16. She investigated how those who are mentally ill and poor were cared for, and she discovered an underfunded and unregulated system that perpetuated abuse of this population (Tiffany, 1891). Horrified by her findings, Dix began lobbying various state legislatures and the U. She did this by relentlessly lobbying state legislatures and Congress to set up and fund such institutions. At Willard Psychiatric Center in upstate New York, for example, one treatment was to submerge patients in cold baths for long periods of time. A brief application of electric stimulus is used to produce a generalized seizure. Starting in 1954 and gaining popularity in the 1960s, antipsychotic medications were introduced.
You may recall from your earlier reading that homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balance antibiotic mouthwash purchase cheap ethambutol line, or optimal level virus webquest order cheapest ethambutol and ethambutol, within a biological system. In a body system, a control center (which is often part of the brain) receives input from receptors (which are often complexes of neurons). The control center directs effectors (which may be other neurons) to correct any imbalance detected by the control center. According to the drive theory of motivation, deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs. These needs result in psychological drive states that direct behavior to meet the need and, ultimately, bring the system back to homeostasis. This low blood sugar will induce a physiological need and a corresponding drive state. Eating will eliminate the hunger, and, ultimately, your blood sugar levels will return to normal. Interestingly, drive theory also emphasizes the role that habits play in the type of behavioral response in which we engage. Once we have engaged in a behavior that successfully reduces a drive, we are more likely to engage in that behavior whenever faced with that drive in the future (Graham & Weiner, 1996). As you recall from your study of learning, these theories assert that there is an optimal level of arousal that we all try to maintain (Figure 10. If we are underaroused, we become bored and will seek out some sort of stimulation. On the other hand, if we are overaroused, we will engage in behaviors to reduce our arousal (Berlyne, 1960). Most students have experienced this need to maintain optimal levels of arousal over the course of their academic career. Think about how much stress students experience toward the end of spring semester. They feel overwhelmed with seemingly endless exams, papers, and major assignments that must be completed on time. They probably yearn for the rest and relaxation that awaits them over the extended summer break. Generally, by the time the next semester is beginning in the fall, many students are quite happy to return to school. Performance is maximized at the optimal level of arousal, and it tapers off during under- and overarousal. Research shows that moderate arousal is generally best; when arousal is very high or very low, performance tends to suffer (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). If your level is very low, such as boredom and apathy, your performance will likely suffer. Similarly, a very high level, such as extreme anxiety, can be paralyzing and hinder performance. They are favored to win their first game by a large margin, so they go into the game with a lower level of arousal and get beat by a less skilled team. But optimal arousal level is more complex than a simple answer that the middle level is always best. This relationship is known as Yerkes-Dodson law, which holds that a simple task is performed best when arousal levels are relatively high and complex tasks are best performed when arousal levels are lower. Bandura argues that motivation derives from expectations that we have about the consequences of our behaviors, and ultimately, it is the appreciation of our capacity to engage in a given behavior that will determine what we do and the future goals that we set for ourselves. For example, if you have a sincere belief in your ability to achieve at the highest level, you are more likely to take on challenging tasks and to not let setbacks dissuade you from seeing the task through to the end. A number of theorists have focused their research on understanding social motives (McAdams & Constantian, 1983; McClelland & Liberman, 1949; Murray et al. Among the motives they describe are needs for achievement, affiliation, and intimacy. The need for affiliation encourages positive interactions with others, and the need for intimacy causes us to seek deep, meaningful relationships. For example, the need for achievement and recognition falls under the domain of ambition.
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