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When the penalties for crime are sufficiently bad to discourage future crime antimicrobial gorilla glass order azithromycin paypal, this is deterrence antibiotic resistance drugs generic 100mg azithromycin fast delivery. Deterrence refers to using the threat of punishment to prevent the occurrence of crime. Until the 1960s, sociologists tended to discount any deterrent effects of punishment, based on research that the death penalty did not deter murder any better than life imprisonment. More recent evidence indicates that if the offender is of the belief that they are likely to be caught, and that the punishment will be severe, then threat of punishment may be effective. In the United States punishment is not certain, swift, nor severe, making deterrence ineffective. Since murder often follows an outburst of emotion, it is not likely to include a rational calculation of consequences and deterrence is unlikely. American attitudes toward capital punishment have changed historically, from being accepted during the colonial period to losing favor by the late nineteenth century. In the late 1960s, the death penalty was abolished; it was reestablished a decade later. Nonetheless, the trend over the last twenty years has been for less support of the death penalty. For example, a substantial majority of voters would choose a punishment other than the death penalty in cases of murder (61%), such as life without parole. Sixty-three percent of whites favor the death penalty, compared with 34% of African Americans. This is not surprising given the fact that 40 percent of inmates on death row are black, compared to 16 percent in the general public. About threefourths of Americans who support the death penalty would continue to support it even knowing it does not deter murder, indicating the need for revenge or retribution is greater than deterrence. In the Peculiar Institution, Garland argues that the death penalty is deeply embedded in American history and culture, bound up with a commitment to federalism, to local democracy, racism and violence. In other nations, the elite have banned the practice over the objections of the population, something that U. The Supreme Court has refused to declare it cruel and unusual punishment in deference to public opinion. Retribution-Retribution means that criminals pay in compensation equal to their crimes against society. Legal authorities are permitted to demand retribution, but individual acts of revenge are not tolerated. The responsibility for punishment lies with the state, not the individual, so that punishment is a social issue. Between 1980 and 2008, the number of inmates in American jails and prisons quadrupled from about 500,000 to 2. Combining the people in prison or jail with those under parole or probation supervision, 1 in every 31 American adults, or 3. While accounting for only one-fourth of the American population, African Americans and Latinos make up almost 60 percent of the prison population. Rehabilitation-The rehabilitation approach attempts to resocialize criminals in order to reduce crime. Prison programs have been geared toward improving social and employment skills prior to release. Thirty to sixty percent of those released from prison will return within two to five years. The high rate of recidivism may be due to characteristics of the criminals, the stigma attached to being an ex-convict, and problems within prisons themselves. It is difficult to change attitudes and behavior within the prison subculture, which has a greater influence than the formal authorities. One example is shock probation, which uses time in prison to shock offenders into realizing the consequences of their actions. Community-based programs may release prisoners to work in the community for part of the day.
Urban residents interact on the basis of rigidly defined roles antibiotics for acne for 6 months generic 250mg azithromycin with amex, not their total personalities virus 7912 cheap 250 mg azithromycin with amex. Reliance on roles occurs because it is impossible to know everyone, and while urbanites may know more people than rural residents, they do not know them well enough to interact personally. Wirth believed that as cities become larger, more densely settled, and more socially diverse, residents become more sophisticated and more reliant on impersonal relationships. The Contemporary Perspective on Urbanism: Community Sustained-Wirth has been criticized for his assumption that all urban residents share a common lifestyle. Herbert Gans argued that five basic population groups could be found within inner-city areas, and that some of these live in the inner city by choice and do not experience the negative consequences depicted by Wirth. Gans identified: 1) cosmopolites who are well educated, have high incomes, and are attracted to cultural advantages, such as art museums, theaters, and symphony orchestras; 2) the unmarried and childless also live in the inner city by choice because it allows them to meet other people, and the area is convenient to jobs and entertainment facilities; 3) ethnic villagers live in inner-city neighborhoods with strong ethnic identities-while they may not participate in the city as a whole, their immediate neighborhood is an important source of intimate, enduring relationships; 4) the trapped are people such as the elderly living on pensions or public assistance who cannot afford to leave the inner city-they may identify with their own neighborhood, but consider overall changes in the central-city area undesirable; and 5) the deprived who may be poor minorities, the psychologically and physically challenged, some divorced mothers, and other people for whom the city may offer increased opportunities, but who are not able to choose where they will live. Research has found that urban residents have informal, emotionally supportive relationships. According to John Kasarda and Morris Janowitz, those who are not involved in such relationships tend to be those who have not lived in the city long enough to become a part of it. Studies in areas as diverse as lower-class slums and middle-class suburbs also show the importance of personal relationships among family members and friends. Neighborhoods, as well as families, provide urban residents with emotional support and mutual aid. Ask them to evaluate the problems associated with continued population growth presented in the text and to develop their own ideas for solutions. Ask the class to evaluate the suggestions in terms of the outcomes they might predict would occur. Ask the students to view the film entitled Soylent Green (1973, starring Charlton Heston), in which the need for population control in future societies leads to euthanasia centers and the recycling of human flesh into food products. Ask them to evaluate the plausibility of such predictions, both within the United States and in other societies. Invite a city planner to come to the class and discuss what he or she does in that job. Also ask the planner to relate the local area to one of the theories of city growth. Ask students to draw a picture of their own community, of any cities that they visit in nearby areas, and of the largest city with which they are familiar. Divide the class into small groups and ask students to share and discuss their drawings with each other. Have they identified particular neighborhoods, concentric circles, or areas surrounding major transportation routes? Each group should present to the class the drawings most representative of a particular theory. Students have probably heard others talk about "bad neighborhoods" in urban areas. Perhaps they have their own experience with areas they avoid in the cities they visit. What programs might they suggest to make these neighborhoods safer and more hospitable for those who live there? World population growth is a major concern for many environmentalists and futurists. Population Connection (formerly Zero Population Growth) and Negative Population Growth are two organizations dedicated to finding ways to limit the growth of world and U. Both organizations point out that the vast majority of population growth takes place in developing countries-exactly the places with the least ability to support more people. Negative Population Growth also notes that immigration is a source of population increase for the U. According to these two groups, there is a clear connection between population growth and virtually every challenge facing our planet. Both organizations are active in the movement for sound population policies and advocate a stable or smaller and truly sustainable population through education and voluntary incentives for smaller families. Nearly two hundred years later, President Richard Nixon said (in 1969, with a population of 203 million Americans), "Where, for example, will the next hundred million Americans live? As discussed in earlier chapters, poverty has been increasing in the United States and most of those affected are children. Causes of poverty include changes in the occupational structure that has made self-sufficiency through employment more difficult, and a decrease in the availability of public assistance.
Yet even in that letter the dubious distinction between earthiness and dirtiness raises its dusky head bacterial jock itch discount azithromycin 250 mg on-line. By 1902 infection 7th guest order azithromycin online now, however, ``James had accepted Madame Bovary as a classic' (Grover 1973: 72). He still criticized Madame Bovary for being ``limited': ``Our complaint is that Emma Bovary, in spite of the nature of her consciousness and in spite of her reflecting so much that of her creator, is really too small an affair' (James 1914: 81). David Gervais understands ``too small' to mean ``not representative enough' (1978: 51). Despite the tragic things happening to her, she never quite reaches the stage of a ``cultivated consciousness. So it is because of what Emma lacks in her points of contact with the American Realism in Anglo-European Contexts 85 world, her lack of a fine mind, that James finds Madame Bovary insufficient as a novel' (1973: 723). James could never quite overcome his criticism that French realism lacked a moral sense; but the moral sense still lacking is now that of a consciousness not yet sufficiently cultivated to turn a ``small affair' into a source of heightened consciousness. Writers like Eliot, Balzac, Turgenev, Daudet, Flaubert, or Zola are praised but also criticized constantly. James often appears to have written his novels in order to correct and revise his European sources (Tintner 1991: 2; see also Cargill 1961; Walker 1995). Discussing American fiction in an Anglo-European context thus should not be restricted to the faithful recording of influences: there were innumerable ``germs,' topics, plotlines, and characters that made their way into the American novel of the time, and it would go beyond the scope of this essay to make an effort to list them. But there are also influences that left a distinctive mark, by serving either as model for a new literary method or as point of departure for a major revision. If an AngloEuropean context is to shed any light on American fiction, then we also have to focus on where and why the two movements differ and part company. References to Eliot are made throughout the period, but especially by Howells, for whom she provided a welcome legitimation for focusing on the representation of common, ordinary life. That Howells novel the uneventful, decidedly unromantic story of a belated wedding journey ten years after the fact provides an example of this realism of the commonplace. His characters are no longer representatives of a pre-industrial rural world filled with cottages, churches, and quaint workshops, but urban characters who enjoy and occasionally indulge in the amenities of modern life. In focusing on the commonplace, the purpose thus is not to give dignity to simple, common people whom modernity has left behind, but to depict representative modern Americans. If one wants to assess the progress of contemporary American society, then the ``ordinary' pursuits of everyday characters should become the center of attention and the measure of that progress. As we have already seen, the model for such a character-novel with minimized action was provided by Turgenev. For Turgenev, the lack of action on the part of his characters, as well as their brooding melancholy, is a device for revealing the paralysis of an aristocratic society. In its comforting prosperity, it has reduced the ``plots' in which ordinary Americans live to the small, everyday dramas that Frank Norris would later call ``teacup tragedies' and which even Howells occasionally presents with a dose of irony: ``I suppose it is always a little shocking and grievous to a wife when she recognizes a rival in butchers-meat and the vegetables of the season' (1968: 13). In their studies of the mid-career novels of James, critics like Oscar Cargill and Richard Brodhead have argued that with the Bostonians (1886) and the Princess Casamassima (1886) James finally aimed at a ``public' novel in the manner of French realism. Brian Lee has listed the striking parallels between ґ Washington Square and Eugenie Grandet: ``Both novels revolve around naive young girls who fall in love with more sophisticated suitors. In both novels the heroines are depicted as being incapable of relinquishing American Realism in Anglo-European Contexts 87 their deep emotional attachments to their superficial lovers, and their lives are effectively ruined' (Lee 1984: 10). And yet, a striking difference remains: while ґ Eugenie Grandet is a typically Balzacian study of single-minded, obsessive characters, Washington Square tells a story of self-development and, ultimately, self-empowerment in which the heroine, in a painful learning process, gradually moves toward a state of heightened awareness and the possibility of individual self-determination. He is the exemplary Balzacian Old World character who is ruled by only one passion, an insatiable hunger for money. In his single-minded pursuit of riches, however, he is merely more successful in doing what (almost) everybody else also wants to do. Sloper in Washington Square, on the other hand, is initially presented as an enlightened, cosmopolitan man whose ``other side' is only gradually revealed and recognized by his daughter Catherine. For Grandet, money is everything; for Sloper, wealth is a given, so that his main interest lies in the art of cultivating life. Consequently, the central drama in Washington Square is not one of greed and the deforming effects of money: James focuses on a wellintentioned but suffocating form of guardianship, and an ensuing struggle for selfґ determination. What the two novels have in common is the choice of a decidedly plain and unattractive heroine. Catherine Sloper must initially be one of the least interesting heroines of world literature.
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